Divorce As A Socio-Legal Process

51The family is a complex and dynamic institution in India. Families in India are undergoing vast changes like increasing divorce and separation rates, domestic violence, inter-generational conflicts, and social problems of the aged parents.

In contemporary research, divorce and re-marriage are viewed not as single, static events, but as part of a series of transitions, modifying the lives of children. In addition to the trauma of divorce itself, the transition related to divorce often involves geographic moves, the addition of step-siblings and a new set of extended family members.

Definition of divorce:

Divorce -partial or total – is the dissolution of a marriage by the judgment of a court. Partial dissolution is a divorce “from bed and board,” a decree of judicial separation, leaving the parties officially married while forbidding cohabitation. Total dissolution of the bonds of a valid marriage is what is now generally meant by divorce. It is to be distinguished from a decree of nullity of marriage, or annulment, which is a judicial finding that there never was a valid marriage.

According to the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, ‘any marriage solemnized, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, may, on a petition presented by either the husband or the wife, be dissolved by a decree of divorce’1 on the grounds mentioned therein.

Among the Hindus, who form a major religious group in India, marriage is considered as a permanent, life-long and sacred union. For a Hindu in general, a Hindu woman in particular, marriage is a sacrament and hence unbreakable. Divorce was fairly an unknown phenomenon among the Hindus before the passing of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 and the Special Marriage Act 1954. The amendment to the Hindu Marriage Act in 1976 is an improvement on the previous legislation relating to marriage and makes divorce easier. There are certain matrimonial offences, which entitle the aggrieved spouse to file for a divorce, available under the matrimonial laws. These are cruelty, adultery, and bigamy. Divorce by mutual consent is available under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.

The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 differentiates the concept of ‘divorce’ from such other concepts as separation2, desertion3 and annulment4. A divorce is that process by which a marriage, recognized as valid, can be revoked in the lifetime of the partners who then revert to single and is free to remarry.

But in reality, divorce is a major life transition that has far-reaching social, psychological, legal, personal, economic, and parental consequences. The nature of divorce as a socio-legal phenomenon is very interesting and enigmatic. The present study is an attempt to learn the persuasive power of the social factors in determining the status of a divorcee.

Literature Survey:

Numerous studies in the sociological literature in the west have examined and analyzed the phenomenon of divorce and its implications. In India, considerable research on divorce has been documented, albeit on lesser scale compared to the west. The main reasons for the limited number of empirical studies on divorce in India, are the lower divorce rates, and lack of adequate data [Amato, 1994]. It has been found that various studies related to marriage, family and divorce have been conducted at various periods of time. These studies, despite offering vital insights into the subject, circumscribed their scope to the demographic and causative factors of divorce; the “pre-divorce” stage, which a crucial determinant is of “divorce process”, has not received adequate attention.

Demographic data on divorce

As per Census 2001, eight per cent of the total married population [Two per cent of the total population] in Andhra Pradesh is divorced. Four per cent of female population in Hyderabad city is divorced. Besides, there is an increase in the number of divorced also. Total number of divorced population in the city of Hyderabad increased to 7433 in 2001 from 2850 in 1991. Nearly half of the total divorced population in the city of Hyderabad and also Andhra Pradesh belong to the age group of 25-39 years.

Research Questions:

The present study is an attempt to scrutinize the influence of social factors on the process of divorce. The present study proposes to consider the following research question:

It is generally assumed that there will be adverse and far reaching social and legal consequences of divorce, especially among the Hindu women, because the Hindus have been traditional in their outlook and marriage is considered as a sacred union among the Hindus. Is this statement relevant for the contemporary, urban, modern and westernized outlook about the status of women?

The Location Of The Study- Twin Cities Of Hyderabad And Secunderabad:

Greater Hyderabad Urban Agglomeration, including the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad alone accounts for 24 per cent of urban population in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The population of Hyderabad district has gone up from 3145939 in 1991 to 3829753 in 2001. Hyderabad, now nicknamed as “Cyberabad”, the capital city of the state of Andhra Pradesh is moving at a fast pace in the development of information technology and infrastructure.

Information technologies are drastically changing the way one conducts one’s activities. Yet, the social atmosphere in the state appears to be still feudal in outlook and practice. The median age at marriage at Hyderabad District, however, for female population is 15.3 years which is the fifth lowest in India and about 69% of females are married below 18 years.

Universe and Sampling:

The present study focused on divorce cases under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 decided and disposed of by the Legal Services Authority [Lok Adalats], and Family Court of Hyderabad as its universe.

A multi-stage sampling method is followed to select the sample. To begin with, the cases referred for divorce to the Family Court of Hyderabad by the City Civil Court Legal Services Authority are selected where the decree of divorce is granted by the Family Court of Hyderabad. A sample of 57 cases was selected by following the purposive sampling method. Once the cases are selected, the residence of the women-divorcees is taken into consideration to select the sample at the second stage. Data is collected from the women- divorcees residing at twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad and the peri-urban zone surrounding the twin cities. A pre-tested interview schedule is used to elicit information from the respondents. Data on age, education, occupation, caste status, monthly income, details of marriage, details of marital disharmony, introduction of legal aspects of divorce and the personal experiences in this regard, post-divorce consequences as decided by the courts, life of the divorcee after divorce, and remarriage are collected by using the schedule. In-depth interviews also were made with selected respondents, family counselors, lawyers and the members of Judiciary dealing with divorce cases.

Socio-Economic Profile Of The Divorcee-Respondents:

The data is collected from 57 women respondents. Information pertaining to the socio-economic and cultural background of the spouses is important in as much as it could be related to their behavior pertaining to marital dissolution. In the analysis of data some of the socio-economic characteristics were taken as important variables in the process of divorce.

Age of the respondents is an important variable in the analysis of divorce. The largest group of the respondents (52.3%) belongs to the 26-35 years age group, followed by 42.3 per cent of the respondents falling in the 16-25 years age group. The data suggest that a majority of the marriages ends at young age.

Education is another important variable associated with divorce. In tune with the general perception that more number of divorces accompanies higher level of education of women, it is reported that women with higher education took recourse to divorce to end marital incompatibility. In Becker’s theory of the union formation process it is argued that highly educated men tend to marry highly educated women and less educated men tend to marry less educated women [Becker 1977]. Though a number of studies link high rates of divorce to higher level of education, the proposition in the-Indian context, is not irrefutable. Pothen [1986] was not certain whether education hinders or promotes the incidence of divorce among Hindus. She agreed that it is hard to predict the restraining or corrective influence of education on divorce. The present study shows that, even though the percentage of those with college education is sizeable [55.8%] the analysis of data implies that higher level of education is not always accompanied by divorce.

There is much relationship between occupation and marital and familial life. Burgess and Locke [1950; 634] observed that ‘various studies seem to show that divorce is relatively high among persons engaged in occupations necessitating frequent absence from home, involving intimate contacts with the opposite se, and controlled relatively little by the community’. The percentage of women respondents working at the time of marriage and after is very low. The most important factors hindering women to seek employment are community customs and traditions. In spite of giving importance to education of the girls, many parents, husbands and other male relatives will not permit their women to work.

Most of the respondents are housewives. Their sources of income include rents accrued from their landed property or interest on the fixed deposits deposited by them at Banks or Chit Funds and Private financial institutions. The number of respondents having monthly income more than Rs. 20,000 is negligible [8 per cent].

The present study is concerning divorce among the Hindus. Among the Hindus, there are innumerable castes and sub-castes with marital restrictions and varied cultural traditions. It is seen that the highest number [42.3%] of divorces is from Brahmin caste. The Brahmin respondents are from the sub-castes of Niyogi Brahmins [23], Vaidiki Brahmins [9], Kannada-Madhwa Brahmin [2], and Srivaishnava Brahmin [4]. Urban residences, higher educational qualifications, detachment from their ethnic groups are some of the facilitating factors of social mobility among them. Nearly sixty per cent of the divorces among them took place for incompatibility, inability to adjust and lack of understanding on the part of the other spouse. Naidu, Kamma, Viswa Brahmin, Mera, Kapu castes, which are described as middle level castes, come next [36.9%]. The lowest per cent [4.5%] of the divorcees are Kshatriyas.

Each caste follows different traditions and values in the Indian cultural milieu. Some castes permit divorce while others do not, irrespective of the fact that it is legally sanctioned under the marriage laws. Hence, in view of the cultural heterogeneity, the rate of divorce is likely to differ from one caste to the other. Sample of the present study shows that divorce is now permitted by all castes and the highest rate is found among Brahmins. But, in many cases couples might have separated from each other and might not have approached the courts for legal divorce. In this context, it cannot be hypothesized that divorce is resorted to more by higher caste members than by lower caste members.


How Marriage Alliance Took Place?

In most of the families in India matrimonial alliances are formalized by the parents and their criteria in weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed marriages are drastically different from that of the marriage partners themselves. Presently, ‘arranged by the parents- marriages’ can be considered as arranged-cum-love marriages. Matrimonial classifieds in newspapers or help of matrimonial associations are sought in arranged marriage when the family fails to find “suitable” spouses for their children.

Seventy three per cent of the marriage alliances in the present study were arranged. In majority of the cases, relatives are used as intermediaries. This shows the prevalence of arranged marriages. Taking help form the matrimonial associations seemed to be another popular method for the arrangement of marriage. Parents of the respondents approached matrimonial associations in 18.9 per cent cases in order to search for a good match. The role of matrimonial advertisements in bringing marriage alliance is very nominal [6.3 %].

The legal validity of marriage among the Hindus is determined by the performance of marriage rituals. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 has secularized the Hindu law of marriage in all respects except in one aspect. However, there need not be any doubt about one ceremony, viz., the saptapadi which is absolutely indispensable for the performance of a Hindu marriage by the shastric rites.

Under Section 8 of the Hindu Marriage Act 1955, there exists a provision for registration of marriages. The state of Andhra Pradesh passed the Compulsory Registration of Marriage Act, 2002. The Supreme Court of India on February 15, 2006 ordered compulsory registration of marriages irrespective of religion. Despite the Compulsory Registration of Marriage Act, 2002, most of the marriages are not registered. Only 12 per cent of the marriages are registered. The registration of marriage was done in most of the cases when there emerged a need to have a proper certificate of marriage, particularly to apply for Visa.

Duration of marriage:

The first one or two years of marriage are extremely important in the life of any couple. Some marriages survive for a longer life but some are dissolved in the early years of marital life. The data clearly shows that mostly the happily-married time has been too short and those who had some years of happily-married life are very small in number.

Age At Marriage:

Researchers consistently find age at marriage to be one of the strongest predictors of marital disruption and divorce. The present study reveals that young age at marriage in conjunction with lack of the capacity to avoid bickering in the marital life resulted in divorce.

Causes Of Divorce:

As legal dissolution of marriage, divorce is primarily a legal phenomenon. Family laws of any country formulate law for divorce in which grounds are stipulated under which divorce may be availed of. These legal grounds are not just isolated legal causes, but they do signify the socio-cultural view point also. Therefore, when we deal with the causes of divorce, we have to keep in mind the legal and sociological viewpoints.

A major factor likely to affect the level of divorce in a society is the commitment that others outside the marriage have to its continuation. If marriage is defined as private, of concern principally to the married couple and having little external impact, divorce is likely to be more readily available.

The present study analyses the causes of divorce at the individual level. Hence data on how disharmony in the marital life of the respondents began is collected. The data reveals that majority of the respondents consider marriage as an intense, personal and private relationship. In a sense marital life of the respondents’ caught in something of a pincer movement. On the one side, the more that is expected of marriage and the heavier the burden of hopes and emotions it has to carry, the less likely it is to be found satisfactory. On the other side, again because marriage is essentially concerned with personal happiness and fulfillment, the ‘support’ it receives from outside diminishes. There is less pressure for a couple, largely in urban society, to stay together because their break-up has little impact outside the domestic sphere and causes fewer ripples than it would in a traditional Hindu society.

Further important ‘structural’ factor related to the increasing divorce rate is the changed social position of married women in our society. Though men’s and women’s lives continue to be structured unequally, the social and economic opportunities now open to women are certainly greater than they were five decades ago. To this extent marriage ‘traps’ women rather less than it once did. In particular, the opportunities there are for employment or, failing this, the availability of supplementary benefit makes separation and divorce a more realistic option than previously.

One further factor affecting the level of divorce is the legitimacy accorded it in a society. As more and more people have some experience of divorce, either at first hand or through someone close to them being divorced, the less opprobrium it carries. In this way, divorce has become a more normal and less remarkable life event-one to regret rather than condemn. As a result, there is now less pressure put on couples who are having marital problems to stay together. They are likely to see divorce as a reasonable solution if the marriage is in sufficient trouble rather than something to be resisted at any cost. The point here, of course, is that what is defined as ‘sufficient trouble’ to warrant divorce itself changes as divorce becomes more common. Though divorce is still traumatic and not entered into lightly, what was once held to be tolerable within a marriage may now be seen as sufficient reason for divorce.

The way in which divorce is thought to affect children provides an interesting indication of our social imagery of divorce. Presently divorce is still seen as harmful to children; however popular wisdom accepts that living with parents who are in continual conflict with each other can be even more damaging. Far better, it is now believed, for the parents to separate so that the child can be provided with a less tempestuous and more emotionally stable home life.

Basing on the complaints of divorced women, Goode [1956] formulated twelve themes that include non-support, drinking, incongruent values, and disagreement over authority, extra marital sex and neglect of home. The most frequently mentioned marital problems are communication difficulties, general incompatibility, not spending enough time at home, infidelity and disagreement over money matters [Cleek & Pearson, 1985; Kitson, 1992]. Attribution theory [Fiske and Taylor, 1992] suggests that people because of self-serving biases attribute problems to external rather than internal causes. Going by this theory the spouse is less likely to report marital problems caused by herself or himself. Amato and Rogers [1997] categorized the causes of marital dissolution as distal and proximal. Distal causes include age at marriage, education, race, wife’s employment, income etc. whereas proximal causes are anger, jealousy, dominance, infidelity, extravagance, substance use etc.

The present study collected data on factors which lead to marital disharmony. These factors are grouped into:
o Lack of understanding between the spouses
o Demand for dowry from the husband, and his parents
o Incompatibility
o Overwork [where both the spouses are involved, consequently not finding time to spend together]
o Involvement of parents of the spouses in all and sundry matters of the marital life of the spouses.
o Domestic violence.

The cause ‘lack of understanding’ describes the marital bickering resulted due to many factors. One such factor is change in the wife’s income and her educational attainment after marriage. Further education may be a stressor in marital life itself, but the relationship might also be due to reverse causation: Anticipating divorce in a low quality marriage may provide an incentive to obtain further education as a preparation for single life. Three of the wife-respondents felt that their insistence on continuing education even after marriage created friction in their marital life.

Gender role Attitudes and Division of Household work:

The women’s movement and increased numbers of dual-career couples have led to shifts in gender role attitudes–in other words, what a husband and wife expect from themselves and each other in their marital relationship roles. Traditional notions that a wife is expected to remain at home and take care of the house, children, and family, while the husband is expected to be the breadwinner and “head of the household,” have begun to decrease and more egalitarian notions (men and women are equal in all domains) have increased among both men and women Not only have gender role attitudes changed, but, concurrently, division of household work has also shifted. Although marital behaviors today are more egalitarian, wives are not satisfied. Why are women less happy in their marriages? One explanation may stem from the fact that an ideology of marital equality does not necessarily translate into an outcome of marital equality.

Sex-Role Perceptions of the Spouses:

Sex-role perceptions and attitudes towards working women are influenced by the cultural norms of gender equality which determine the position of women in society and their educational and economic status. In India, cultural norms favor women mainly in their domestic and marital roles [Rao and Rao, 1988]. If they work, they are regarded merely as secondary or supportive earners. Women’s employment does not alter sex – role perceptions mainly because of the prevailing culturally defined gender based norms. The present study reveals that sex-role perceptions of the respondents mostly dependent on cultural norms.

Husband -Wife Interactions:

There is variation in cultural ideas about proper husband-wife relations among the respondents. Moving from village to city is an important experience that allows people to assess cultural beliefs. The migration of the respondents after their marriage has created some confusion regarding husband-wife interactions.


One of the more puzzling aspects of marital crisis involves the issues of compatibility. At individual level, marriage is the bonding of man and woman on the deepest levels of life; and compatibility is vital for the union to succeed. One fourth of the respondents took incompatibility as a cause for their divorce.

Demands For Dowry:

Although dowry demands have been outlawed by the Indian government, these laws are seldom enforced and the practice of dowry is still widespread [VazL, Kanekar S., 1990]. Despite their condemnation of dowry, most women respondents seemed resigned to it, as they believed it affords young women an important degree of social legitimacy and security. For most respondents, managing a daughter’s marriage negotiations was an agonizing process fraught with tension and fear.13 per cent of the respondents said that the reason for the marital disharmony is demand for more dowries.


Five per cent of the respondents felt that there was hardly any time available for them to spend together with their spouse prior to their divorce. Where both spouses are working in BPO sector, because of the timings of their work they find that they overworked and do not have any strength to share communication regarding their marital life.

Involvement Of The Parents Of The Spouses:

Educated couples insist that they would like to have their privacy particularly in their marital life. They feel that intervention of even their parents is not acceptable. When parents or parents-in-law try to convince them in marital matters they decide to break the relationship rather than coping with it. 11 per cent of the respondents said that they could not solve their marital discord due to the involvement of their parents.

Domestic Violence:

Traditional rigid gender roles are one such cultural norm within various areas of India that may increase the likelihood of violence against women. These roles are defined in such a manner that sons are more likely than daughters to be of benefit to their parents, both financially and in other ways. Most of the respondents suffered domestic violence during their married life and expressed that domestic violence determined their decision to go for a divorce.

Causes of divorce can be quite complex and complicated. There is usually not one simple factor that causes the dissolution of a marriage. Family legal experts cite the following factors as major causes of divorce: poor communication, financial problems, lack of commitment, dramatic changes in priorities, and infidelity. Causes of divorce may also include physical, mental or emotional abuse, substance abuse, and lack of conflict resolution skills, unmet needs, failed expectations, and significant discrepancies in parenting.

Divorce As Legal Process:

The present study found that, divorce by mutual consent is mostly used ground for seeking divorce.

Sometimes a trivial cause may lead to divorce. One of the respondents filed a case for divorce when her mother-in-law stated her wish to stay along with the couple. Another respondent refused to meet her husband as her consent for the marriage was not obtained by the elders before fixing the marriage. Since such trivial causes may not stand legal scrutiny, lawyers advise their client to file a case on mutual consent.

Considering Divorce As A Possibility:

Once it is decided by the respondent that he/she can no longer continue their marital life, they usually take the final decision. The process of divorce moves at a pace commensurate to each person’s ability to adapt to the physical, financial and emotional changes that divorce demands. Some people move quickly through these stages, others need more time to accomplish the tasks involved in a stage and to assimilate the information and the emotional experiences the stage encompasses.

Making the decision to divorce is the first step in the divorce process, and it is a complicated step. Once a person has made the decision to end their relationship, their next task is to tell their spouse they want to end the marriage. Most of the respondents took help from either their parents or friends to tell their spouse that they want to end the marriage. These discussions were not limited to the disclosure of their decision to end their marriage but also include a collaborative effort to redistribute the property, custody of children, prospects of remarriage and other related matters. All the respondents took an advice before seeking legal advice from the lawyers and filing a petition for divorce. More than half of the respondents took advice from their family members before filing a petition for divorce. Nearly twenty two per cent of the respondents shared their marital life-experiences with their friends and followed their counsel. 20.7 per cent of the respondents approached the caste elders seeking advice. Caste elders are still playing an important role in resolving matters related to family. The present study observed that some of the middle level castes are giving importance to the caste elders. Caste elders usually act as a quasi- judicial body in deciding domestic matters. Sometimes, they take the initiative to approach the court of record on behalf of a person.

Nonetheless, the present study found that empowered women are initiating the new wave of divorce petitions. They are not keen to fight the battle as victims of marriage under statutes; rather they prefer to settle things mutually on the basis of equality. The reasons are temperamental differences, financial issues and family interferences.

The present study indicates that in vast majority of the cases, it took up to two years to get the case finally decided. The prolongation of the case of some respondents was mainly due to the fact the spouses concerned were indifferent. The period of trial of divorce case was difficult for most of the respondents, especially women. Some of the typical situations experienced by the respondents include: anxiety about the future, disturbance in the home set-up, training, education and discipline of children, social stigma, non-satisfaction of sexual needs, economic non-support. The incidence of cohabitation during the pendency of the case was inquired into. It was found that majority of the respondents were already separated then the trial started. In few cases respondents had already got remarried and started cohabiting with the new spouse though it was illegal.

Custody Of Children:

One of the most pressing concerns in regard to divorce is the custody of children. The question of custody of children has been dealt with in Section 26 of the Hindu Marriage Act. In making an order in respect of the custody of child, the welfare of the children is the paramount consideration, not the rights of the parents. The respondents having children are not many. 28 percent of the respondents are having children. Of these most of the respondents are having only one child. Majority of the children are living with either with their mothers or parents of mother. It is found that not having children makes divorce easier.


The present analysis observed that majority of the respondents went to their parents and trying to fill the gap in their lives by taking work more seriously or going in for higher studies. It is found that presently divorce is viewed by the divorcees as a mechanism which provides freedom from tensions and opportunities for career development.


Conceptually it is useful to think of marital dissolution and remarriage as the component parts of a process that takes people back and forth between being married and not being married. There are two states [married and unmarried], and dissolution is the process or event that transfers people from being married to being unmarried while remarriage takes people in the opposite direction. Marriages end at the time of divorce.


‘Divorce’, according to Lipman-Blumen [1977] is a life crisis which society does not promote, as a result of which social rituals marking divorce are largely absent. Blumen [1977] attributed the painful experience of divorcing to lack of institutionalized support for divorce, in the form of social rituals. Therefore it is recommended that some kind of mechanism in the form of social ritual to mark the transition from married to divorced status has to be evolved, in order to make the experience of divorce bearable for both the spouses, especially wife.

It is also recommended to start divorce counseling on a large scale to help the divorcing and the divorced overcome the stress and cope with the future situation.

Since the study is specific to the population, the findings cannot be generalized. The small size of the sample may not succeed in relating the study to the larger context. In view of globalization process of which disinvestment and privatization are corollaries, large scale retrenchments, cuts in subsidies, and shrinking social security are foreseen. In this backdrop the alienation process will gain momentum which will result in family life disruption. Therefore, it is suggested that further studies on divorce should take cognizance of the changed situation.

The Labor Market and the Concept of the Labor Force

10Labor is all forms of human efforts put into or utilized in production. In other words, it refers to man’s mental and physical exertions generated in the process of production. Market on the other hand is a point or place or any means of communication whereby the sellers and buyers can communicate with one another, to exchange goods and services at prices determined by the market forces. Labor market is defined therefore as a market which buyers and sellers of labor are in close contact during which the wages and other conditions of services are determined and agreed upon. Labor is the factor of production which is usually bought and sold in the market.

Labor force

Labor force is the total number of persons available to supply the labor for the production of economic goods and services. In other words, it is the total number of people of working age in a country who are able and willing by law to work. It is the active or working population and it comprises all persons who have jobs and those who are seeking for jobs in the labor market. They are normally found between the age bracket of 18 to 65 years. Working population varies from one country to another. To be a member of the labor force, one must be of working age (18-65 years), be able-bodied, ie, not handicapped either. Mentally or physically, and must be willing to work. Persons that are not members of the labor force include:

• Children of school age (0-17 years)
• Elderly (above 65 years)
• The handicapped (either physically or mental)
• Persons even though they are able-bodied but are unwilling to work.

Demand for Labor

Demand for labor is the total number of workers employers are willing and ready to employ or hire at a particular time and at a given wage rate. The demand for labor is a derived demand, because labor is not required for its own sake but for what it can help produce. Factors affecting the demand of labor are:

1. The size of market: The size of the market for goods and services produced determines the demand for labor. The larger the market, ie, the greater the production of goods and services, the higher the demand for labor to produce the required goods and services.
2. Number of industries: The higher the number of industries that produces the needed goods and services, the higher the demand for labor
3. Wage rate of price of labor: The demand for labor by employers depends on the price at which labor is offered for sale (by workers). If labor is willing to take a low wage rate, the demand for labor will be high.
4. Availability of other factors of production: If other factors of production such as land and capital are available in large quantity to produce the required goods and services, there will be a corresponding high demand for labor.
5. Efficiency of labor: If the efficiency of labor is high, there would be high propensity for employers to engage more labor and vice versa.
6. Demand for goods and services: The demand for goods and services in a country can stimulate an increase in the demand for labor.
7. Nature of Industries: The nature o industries- whether it is capital-intensive or labor-intensive will determine the demand for labor. The labor-intensive industries will lead to high demand for labor.
8. State of employment: The state of employment determines the demand for labor. If the economy has reached full employment, there will be little or no demand for labor but if it is under-employment, there will be need to demand for more labour.

Supply of Labor

Supply of labor is the total number of people of working age offered for employment at a particular time and at a given wage rate. In other words, supply of labor can be referred to as the services of labor available in the labor market. Factors affecting the supply of Labor or size of Labor force are as follows:

1. Size of population of a country: The larger the population, the greater the number of labour to be supplied.
2. Official school leaving age: If the school leaving age is low, the proportion of labour force will be high.
3. Retirement age: The age of exit in public employment will determine the labor force. The older the age, the more the supply of labor and vice versa.
4. Pursuit of higher education: Many people in their pursuit of higher education, go beyond the official entry age into the labor force.
5. Age structure of the population: The structure of a country’s population is a significant determinant of the size of the labor force. The lower the dependent people, the higher the supply of labor force will increase in a country with a greater number of its people between the ages of 18 and 65 years.
6. Role of women in the society: In some societies, women are usually prevented from engaging in gainful employment because of religious belief, social and cultural factors and this affects the size of labor force.
7. Number of working hours and working days: The number of working hours per day and the number of working days in a week of year also helps to determine the supply of labor.
8. The number of disabled: When the number of disabled persons in high especially within the working population, the supply for labor will be low.
9. The number of people unwilling to work: There are certain number of able-bodied people who are also between the age bracket of 18 and 65 years but are unwilling to work. If their population is high, it will affect the size of supply of labor.
10. Migration: The rate of migration can also affect the size of labor force. If the rate at which the working population leaves a country is higher than rate at which people come in, it will lead to reduction in the supply of labor.
11. Trade union activities: The activities of trade union may also affect the supply of labor. For example, when a long period of training is imposed on a certain trade, this may discourage people from engaging in such trade or profession leading to a reduction in supply of labor.
12. Government Policies: Certain government policies can affect the supply of labor. E.g, specific laws are made to exclude children and women from working in ministries. This can reduce the supply of labor to that are or field.

In summary, If a city have an average of 100 child births in a week and 30 surgical cases in 2 months, how do you think the demand and supply would be if 50 gynecologists and 50 surgeons are sent to this city? Supply and demand of Labor are both very essential in our daily life.

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How To Use The Law Of Attraction With Full Force Following These Daily 6 Steps

9If the title intrigued you, I have achieved my purpose of using the law of attraction to get traffic to this article. To get right into the article I want to say that the law of attraction is by far the most powerful law that is in use in every single person’s life.

The law of attraction is working whether you know it or not. I’m assuming that you are already familiar with what the law of attraction means but if you are not I will give you a quick rundown of the definition.

Whatever you believe to be true and whatever consumes your mind whether good or bad is attracted to you. If you don’t believe you can ever create wealth you never will. Vice versa if you believe you are a self made millionaire following his plan to success you will be that success story if you have a relentless burning desire matched with you taking massive action.

It gets a bit more complex than this and that is why I am going to introduce the six steps that must be followed in order to use the Law of attraction with full force. The six steps are not original steps that I am creating they are in fact the six steps that were created by Napoleon Hill when he wrote the book Think and GArerow Rich. These six steps must be followed each and every day until you manifest whatever you desire.

Step number one is to define the amount of money that you want down to the penny. You must first know the exact amount of money that you desire in order for you to be able to manifest it. Many people say that they want a lot of money but do not know the exact amount of money that they wish to obtain. The first step for you is to define that number.

Step number two is to determine what you will be giving in return for the money that you desire. It is pretty obvious but if you did not know you do not get a lot of money for doing absolutely nothing. If you desire a ton of money you must provide a ton of value in return to a lot of people.

Step number two is not an easy step for a lot of people because it forces them to actually come up with a way to obtain the money that they desire. If you’re completely clueless on this area continuing in pursuit of self-improvement is going to be the best route that you can take.

Step number three is to establish a date of when you will be in possession of the money that you desire. So take for example you want to obtain a six figure annual income and you will be providing cleaning services to the businesses in your city.

You must establish a date that your desire will be a reality. Give yourself a reasonable amount of time but not a huge amount of time to where you do not have urgency in the picture. If you are nowhere close to your goal but you have a plan in place decide on a date and put the date in stone.

Step number four is to create a plan to obtain your chief aim. You must begin your plan whether you are ready or not. Many people will have excuses and alibis stating that they are not ready to create their wealth by the plan that they have configured. Inside the six steps you see that you must start no matter if you’re ready or not.

Step five is to write out a statement which includes each of the first four steps inside. You will need to write out the amount of money that you desire with what you will provide in return for the money, the date that you will be in possession of the money and the plan in which you are going to follow to manifest the money.

Step six is for you to read your statement aloud once in the morning when you wake and once at night before you sleep. The most important part of the sixth step is for you to visualize yourself in possession of the money and believe you will achieve your goal. The belief is you using the power of the law of attraction in full force as a visualization guide to bring your future that you’ve created from the six steps into your reality.

Notice there is no statement stating that you can simply just think about what you want an attract it to you. You must actually have a sound plan, value that you provide in return, an estimated date of when you will be in possession of what you desire and willingness to follow this plan each and every day.

What to Know About Pepper Spray

50OC spray causes severe inflammation around the eyes, which reduces or eliminates the vision of an assailant. The chemical derived from the pepper capsicum causes the reaction. When you temporarily blind an assailants, they can be restrained or you can use the time to escape from a dangerous situation. This form of self-defense is not considered deadly.

The laws and regulations regarding the use of pepper spray vary by the state, county, and country in which you reside. In most cases, citizens are allowed to carry the spray solely for self-defense purposes. Buildings that restrict visitors from carrying weapons also prohibit the carrying of pepper spray. Such buildings include courthouses and other government buildings using scanners to detect weapons.

OC spray may be purchased online or in a variety of stores. In most areas, you must be 18 or older to buy pepper spray. Some stores that carry these sprays include sporting goods shops and police equipment suppliers. In order to prevent penalties, it is important to know the relevant laws about purchasing in your area.

The strength of pepper-spray varies depending on the manufacturer and other variables. The claims made about the sprays strength are not closely regulated by the legal system. There are six different capsaicinoids strengths that can cause different levels of effectiveness. Still, these six concentrations can often be inconsistent.

Use all sprays with caution. Prior to using the spray for self-defense, it is important to read all instructions to reduce the risk of accidents or injuries. There are also practice sprays (contain an inert spray), so you can learn how to use the product safely.

Now that you know the mechanics of pepper spray why aren’t you carrying your spray? You cannot deny that every day you hear, see or read about someone living in your town who has been assaulted or robbed. Most likely you or a friend have personally experienced a crime yourself.

How many incidents does it take for you to realize that you need to look out for yourself? Most assaults occur when you are alone (unfortunately some attacks do happen when you are with a group) and you cannot count on someone coming to your rescue. Neither men nor women are exempt from the thugs running loose on our streets.

I live in a big city where assaults sadly are frequent occurrences. I become concerned any time a family member or friend must be out alone at night. You can count on it getting dark early during the winter months giving the bums an advantage over the good people coming home from school or work. Pepper spray is cheap and easy to purchase so why are you waiting to get yours? All you guys out there should be looking out for your wives, girlfriends, mom, daughters, etc. Break down and buy some Pepper Spray for all of them. They may look at you sideways at first but when the time comes, and it will, they will appreciate your gift.

Doing Business Across Cultures and Borders

49Doing business across cultures and borders begin by good negotiation, and individuals with good management skills and negotiating abilities. Managers cannot negotiate productively in an international marketplace if they do not possess important negotiating abilities and skills.

Managers cannot negotiate successfully if they neglect these countries’ cultures, beliefs, and rituals. The differences in cultures, beliefs, and rituals create difficulties in the process of effective negotiation. Therefore, managers need to learn the differences in cultures and traditions from those countries, one-by-one in order to efficiently and effectively conduct a successful negotiation and be able to manage across cultures and borders.

It is also important to understand that because of our traditions and cultural differences, individuals do not think, judge, behave, perceive, and reason alike. Therefore, depending on negotiators’ style, they should learn to adapt to the cultures of those countries that are different from them, in which they intend to do business with. Shrewd negotiators are encouraged to empathically accept and adapt to these traditions and cultures for the sake of profits.

Before engaging in global markets, there are things that managers need to learn. They need to focus on the following:

(1) How to prepare for negotiations

(2) How to build relationships with their counterparts

(3) How much business related information can be shared

(4) How to persuade the other side to agree on issues that matter to them

(5) What to concede on

(6) How to structure the final agreement

Cross-cultural negotiations require careful preparation in order to stay ahead and take advantage of the other party. To avoid problems, managers need to be aware of the issues like cultural differences, language, beliefs, behaviors, family environment, differences in time, work habits, and religion. Different regions have different negotiating styles. So, when managers familiarize themselves with these important negotiating tactics, they may understand the negotiating styles of their counterparts. It is always advisable that companies do a research of the country that they are going into negotiation, in order to learn how their negotiating styles differ from their own. Research will help in revealing their value system, behaviors, and attitude towards foreign companies. To stay ahead is the beginning of an excellent engagement strategy.

In building relationships, managers should look for strategic partners; who they can trust, respect, and be comfortable working with. The strategic partners will be the ones that are familiar with cultures, behaviors, and languages. Most developing countries enforce their agreement based on their relationship and contacts. Such countries rarely adhere to the legal system because as soon as a new leader comes in, those legal contracts will be null and void. So, it pays to build a strong relationship.

In order to share information, a focus group of businessmen and women is recommended in order to discuss the issues that matter to each party. In this capacity, playing role reversal prior to attending the session is recommended. Usually, questions are asked by both parties to address their concerns, the issues that matter to them, and answers are provided by both parties in response to those issues and concerns. In capitalist countries, such as the United States of America, companies use direct approach in negotiations, while in other countries, an indirect approach is used. Some countries will use the debate approach in a negotiation; others adopt the detail oriented, suspicious of what is in there for them or their counterparts, laid back, or protocol approach. Companies should learn how to adapt to each environment in order to be successful.

Persuading the other party to change its original position is a good strategy in negotiation. It is recommended that each party concentrate on what matters to them, and to persuade the other party to accept the offer, and also make a few concessions when appropriate. Most importantly, it will serve managers well if they negotiate ahead of time before coming to the bargaining table. Few participating countries resolve their differences ahead of time based on their cultures, behaviors, and the way they do business. Managers need to do a regional research in order to identify those countries, and when such countries are identified; engaging in a backdoor negotiation is recommended since that is the way businesses are done by those countries. It is essential to avoid the tactics of misleading the other party as that may pose, or lead to potential problems in the future.

It also recommended that parties decide well ahead of time what they are willing to concede to the other party. This strategy will vary according to the culture of the other party. Giving limited information is a good strategy for not giving up on the strength of negotiation, and seeking information of the other party helps to understand what kind of information to give out.

Contracts vary according to the culture of a participating country. While the United States value contracts as binding documents, some view it as insults, some as lack of trust, other may renege on it due to political pressure or instability, and some will rather do business on trust and common understanding. Whoever the country is, understanding its culture and behavior is a key to a successful negotiation and a way to making profit.

Dr. Sidney Okolo is a professor, consultant, strategist, and Africa expert. He is affiliated to several universities, the Managing Director of International Business Associates, a management consulting firm, and also the President of Virtual Classrooms Institute, an online education solution.

Among other things, he engages in all aspects of learning, knowledge, organization and human change. His focus is on leadership, management, entrepreneurship, profit engineering, human potential, excellence, achievement, business strategy, research and development. Product management, change management, conflict management, athlete management, marketing, business development and operations. He works with clients to adapt to change due to change in factors of production, technology, goods and services. He engages clients in training, retraining, development, skills enhancement, association, behavior modification, ways of thinking, and attitude adjustment. In addition to his work in the United States, his focus is also on developing countries in the continent of Africa, their leadership, culture, economic and market structure, community planning and development, and his coined the phrase; “AFRICAN PIES”, which stands for: poverty, instability, ethnicity, and sectarianism in Africa.